With the rising level of automobile production and its corresponding worldwide stocks based on the rapid industrialisation in Asia, Africa and Latin America plus the rising demand in Eastern Europe, the proportion of textiles in a motor car is increasing in response to more stringent comfort and safety needs in industrialised countries like the USA, Japan and Western Europe.Automobile textiles, which are non apparel textiles, are widely used in vehicles like cars, trains, buses, aircraft and marine vehicles. Hence, the term automobile textile means all type of textile components e.g. fibers, filaments, yarns and the fabric used in automobiles.Nearly two third of the automobile textiles are for interior trim, i.e. seat cover, carpets and roof and door liners. The rest is utilized to reinforce tyres, hoses, safety belts, air bags, etc.It is projected that nearly 45 square meters of textile material is utilized in a car for interior trim (seating area, headlines, side panel, carpet and trunk). According to a survey, the percentage of textile in a motor car amounts to 2 per cent of the overall weight of a car. Apart from this, visible textile components, eliminating hidden components such as in tyres and composites, hoses and filters; amount to 10-11 kg per vehicle in absolute terms. Industrial textiles are largely utilized in vehicles and systems including cars, buses, trains, air crafts and marine vehicles. In automobile textile industry, four types of fabrics are used, namely:. Air bag fabrics. Fabric used as a basis for reduction in weight of body parts. Tyre cord fabrics. Automotive upholstery and other textile fabrics used inside the vehicleThe airbag and seat belts used as safety measures are one of the latest types of textiles in automobiles and have a potential market for technical textiles that has a considerable scope for growth and development. Because of government legislation and consumer interest, the applications have been extremely successful over the last ten to fifteen years.In the last decade, airbags or inflatable restraints have received noteworthy significance as a safeguard for the driver and the passengers in case of an accident. Initially, the bags were made for head-on collision, but now, there are many other safety devices like side impact bags, knee bolsters, side curtain, etc, available for safety in any type of crash. Because frontal collisions are a main reason of accidental deaths, airbags are being presented as a standard product in vehicles by legislation, which has given the quick increment of airbags business in the last decade. NHTSA and HHS report that airbag systems have played an important role in saving thousands of lives since 1985. In 2002 alone, due to the airbag system a 20 per cent reduction in fatalities resulting from fatal collisions has been observed.In 1999, there were 55 million vehicles with 81 million airbags. In 2004, the number of frontal airbag units was nearly 100 million and the number of side-impact airbags nearly 65 million. In the same year, nearly 23 per cent of the new vehicles in North America had side airbags for chest protection and 17 per cent had side airbags for head protection. By 2005, this has increased to 180 million airbags and 65 million vehicles.Fabric application demand has increased to 325 million square meters in 2005, and 83 tons of fibre, mostly nylon has been used.The world airbag market is estimated to rise from 66 million units in 1996 to over 200 million units in 2006, a compound annual growth rate of 12 per cent. Over this decade, Europe will put in 60 million units, Asia-Pacific 30 million units and North America 24 million units.While North American and Western European markets are growing, considerable development is also seen in the international market. As new applications are developing for airbags, including rear seat bags, inflatable seat belts and an outside airbag system for pedestrians, new fabrics and combinations are being applied. The front and passenger bags have different requirements because of the distance from the occupant, but they both have rapid increment and deflation in a very short time span.Rollover bags must remain inflated for five seconds. In addition to new uses, expected trends include lighter fabric for use with newer “cold inflators,” blended with materials like fabric and film, new coating polymers (Silicone now dominates having replaced neoprene).Growth of safety devices in the car interiorIncreasing electronics and safety devices require more space in the interior together with new concepts for arrangement.Worldwide market for PA airbag yarnsThe fibre manufacturer Accordis Industrial Fibres BV, Arnhem/ Netherlands reported that the global market for PA airbag was 84,000 tons in 2005.AirbagsAirbags were first introduced in the late 1960s, but it is only in the 1990s that their use increased amazingly and it is set to grow further. This validates the research and development still being made on design, deployment and base fabric material.The prospects for the textile and making-up indus¬tries are huge in the area of airbag production. This is due to its large requirement particularly in view of the legislation, which is already imposed by many countries.Around 1.42 meter2 of fabric is required to produce driver¬ side airbags on light trucks. This estimation gives the idea that the airbag market is of great importance for the use of technical textiles. Airbags are normally made by coated or uncoated fabrics of PA 6.6 yarns with lesser air permeability.A fabric cushion is included as a part of textile ingredient for an airbag, which is folded into the center of the steering wheel (for the driver) or in the glove compartment (for the front seat passenger). Generally, the bag is woven by nylon 6, 6 filament yarns, which are in demand in huge quantities because of their high strength-to-weight ratio, favorable elongation, adequate thermal properties and relatively low cost of production. Other properties required are high tear strength, high anti-seam slippage, controlled air permeability and be capable for being folded into confined places for over ten years without deterioration.FunctionA triggering device sets-off explosive chemicals when it senses an accident above 35 km/h is about to occur. These chemicals hold back and cushion the car occupant from collision with harder objects. The fabric from which the bag is made must be competent for withstanding the strength of the propellant chemicals. More over, the hot gases must not penetrate the fabric and burn the skin of the car occupant.For airbags to perform their protective function, each function in the system must work with reliability and predictability. In frontal airbag initiation, the cushion begins to deploy within 20 ms after collision and is fully set up in 50 ms. Within this period of time, the bag has to spread through the plastic cover, blown up and fill the space between the dashboard and occupant.Material applicationsAirbags are generally made from high tenacity multifilament nylon 6, 6 in yarn quality fineness from 210, 420 to 840 denier, although some polyester and even some nylon 6 is utilized. As Nylon 6 is softer, it is used to lessen skin abrasion. Airbag fabric is not dyed, but has to be scoured to eliminate impure substances, which could encourage mildew or other problems. Airbags are created in compact size, plain woven fabrics.The amount of fabric required to make an airbag depends on its location in the car and the market it serves. The fabrics utilized to produce a driver’s and a passenger’s airbag are quiet different. Most drivers’ side airbags are coated by using lower denier yarns that give strong and light-weight fabrics. The looser weave has been permitted by stronger nylon 6, 6 yarns that create fabrics with lighter weight, less stiffness and better packagabiIity.The fabric which is used to produce passenger airbags is generally uncoated. These kinds of passenger bags are larger so they create lower gas pressures, have longer inflation times, and possess gas which is cooler. The constituent yarns are of relatively heavy denier. Normally, airbag fabrics are made by rapier weaving machines or air jet looms with electronic dobbies.Airbag fabrics varietiesThe earliest airbags were Neoprene coated and woven Nylon 6, 6, but later lighter and thinner silicone coated versions followed. Afterwards, though, uncoated fabrics have emerged. The majority of these fabrics are coated with an elastomeric material such as neoprene or silicone. The long lasting popularity of coated materials for airbags has been seen because of its capability to work as a heat shield and the comparative ease that design engineers can expect wider performance in their use.Though, there are some intrinsic problems with coated airbags, which cover their large thickness, incapability to be folded into small spaces and inclination of decay over time. Coated fab¬rics are simple to cut and sew and the air porosity can be well managed.The drawbacks linked with coated airbags and their subsequent substitution with uncoated materials has warranted significant developments from two sectors of the industry. The uncoated airbags can be recycled in a simple manner. The first development has come from the yarn and fabric producers, who have concurrently developed the performance of the fabrics. Their gas permeability has fallen under specific scrutiny since the way an uncoated fabric discharges gas and establishes the capability of an airbag to resist impact. The second development has gained from the inflator producers, who have started to substitute the original inflators, which release air, with devices that emit air like argon and helium. This is greatly helpful because these gases are equally as effective at lower temperatures and discharge less hot particles.Finishing procedure of airbag fabricsAfter weaving, the airbag fabric is scouring to reduce size. To gain accurate air permeability, the airbag fabric can be calendered. Apart from influencing the air permeability by weaving and finishing, accurate permeability control can be achieved by coating. When the airbag material has been finished, it is sewn together; the best practice is by using it with a laser.Airbags are sewn with Nylon 6, 6, polyester, and Kevlar aramid yarns, the sewing patterns and densities being selected to maximize performance. When a bag is sewn it is folded inside its cover. Packing should permit for tethers connected to the bag to manage operation. Finally, a cover can be set up over the bag to safeguard it from abrasion.Airbag sizesAirbags are available in various sizes and configurations depending on the type of car and steering. Moreover, the driver’s side airbag is smaller than the front passengers by about 65 liters capacity upwards.SuppliersIn airbag systems, there are mainly five suppliers of the airbag module itself, representing 32 per cent of the value of the airbag system. The key airbag control unit has four suppliers representing 24 per cent of the value, and the seat belt portion of the system has two suppliers with a 31 per cent contribution. Yet, the remaining part with only 13 per cent of the value of the airbag system has over 40 suppliers.Two years back INVISTA, formerly DuPont Textiles & Interiors, had expanded nylon 6, 6 fiber production capacity, totaling 7.5 kilotons (kt.) at two facilities; one in Qing Dao, China, and the second in Gloucester, UK.A wide range of highly specialized polyamide 6.6 airbag yarns, Enka Nylon, are made by Polymide High Performance at its Obernburg (Germany) and Scottsboro (Alabama/USA) plants.Zapata Corporation in December, 2005 announced that it completed the sale of all of its 4,162,394 shares of Safety Components International, Inc. to private equity investor Wilbur L. Ross, Jr. for nearly $51.2 million. Zapata’s stake stands for nearly 77.3 per cent of Safety Components’ total outstanding common stock. Safety Components is an independent producer of air bags and the company’s fabrics are largely utilized for automobile safety air bags and in niche industrial and commercial applications. Safety Components headquartered in Greenville, South Carolina, has plants situated in North America, Europe, China and South Africa.Takata is a manufacturer of automotive seatbelts. Takata started researching seatbelt technologies in 1952. After eight years of research and development Takata became the first safety company to offer seatbelts as standard equipment to the Japan market in 1960. In the early 1970’s, Takata worked with NHTSA to satisfy new high speed crash test requirements and supplied the first energy absorbing seat belt system to pass a 30 mph crash test. Irvin Automotive is another company within the Takata Corporation. Irvin makes armrests, cargo covers, molded consoles, seat covers and sun visors.Narricot Industries, LP, located in Southampton, Pennsylvania, is a producer of woven narrow fabrics in North America. With manufacturing facilities in Boykins and South Hill, Virginia, Narricot is the number one supplier of seatbelt webbing to the North American automotive industry.Autoliv is a manufacturer of airbag, seatbelts and other automotive safety devices. Autoliv has nearly 80 wholly or partially owned manufacturing facilities in 30 vehicle-producing countries. Autoliv and its joint ventures and licensees make over 80 million seat belt systems annually.Toray Industries, Inc, that makes nylon 6, 6 fiber and textile for use in automobile air bags, plans to start manufacturing base fabric for automotive airbags at its Czech textile subsidiary in January 2006. The company plans to invest in the necessary equipment to its subsidiary Toray Textiles Central Europe. The production output is projected at 600,000 meters in 2006 and 4 million meters in 2010. At present, Toray makes the fabric in Japan, Thailand and China mainly for airbags used in Japanese cars.Performance tests and standardsMany individual tests carried out with airbag yarns and fabrics is said to number over 50. The ASTM, the SAE and the Automotive Occupant Res¬traint Council (AORC) have established various standards that express appropriate tests for airbags.Seat beltsThe seat belt is an energy absorbing device that is designed to keep the load imposed on a victim’s body during a crash down to survivable limits. Basically, it is designed to offer non recoverable extension to decrease the deceleration forces that the body comes across in a crash. Non recoverable extension is significant to prevent the occupants from being restrained into their seats and sustaining whiplash injuries right away after a collision. To prevent more webbing from paying out after an accident, the automatic belt has a locking device known as inertia reel. An efficient seat belt will only permit its wearer to move forward a maximum of about 30 cm to avoid contact with any fixed parts of the car.It is believed that the seat belts were invented concurrently in America as well as Sweden. The only difference was that the American belt was a strap to encircle the waist and the Swedish belt was a diagonal band made to defend the upper body. Now, a blend of the two designs is a most prevalent arrangement and is called the 3-point belt, which is secured by two fittings on the floor and a third on the sidewall or pillar. Racing drivers wear other patterns, particularly two shoulder straps and a lap belt. The earliest automotive seat belts were set up and were adjustable so that they could fit the wearer manually. The automatic belt superseded this pattern by providing the wearer more space to move.Seat belts are available in multiple layers and are woven in narrow fabrics in twill or satin fabrication from high tenacity polyester yarns, generally 320 ends of 1100 dtex or 260 ends of 1670 dtex yarn. These structures permit highest yarn packing within a given area for highest strength and the trend is to utilize coarser yarns for good abrasion resistance. For ease they require to be softer and more flexible along the length, but rigidity is needed along the width to facilitate them to slide easily between buckles and retract smoothly into housings. Edges require being scuff resistant, but not disagreeably rigid and the fabric must be resistant to microorganisms. Nylon was utilized in some early seat belts, but due to of its higher UV degradation resistance; polyester is now widely used worldwide.Performance standardsNormally, the performance standards require a seat belt to restrain a passenger weighing 90 kg involved in a collision at 50 km/h (about 30 mph) into a fixed object. Straight pull tensile strength should be at least 30 KN/50 mm. Other tests include accelerated ageing and in the made-up form, resistance to fastening and unfastening 10,000 times. The seat belt must be long lasting without any significant deterioration. In many cars, after ensuring the inclusion of the airbag, efforts have been made to link the function of the two devices (seat belt and airbag).ConclusionNo doubt that the airbags help to save lives, but at times they can also be a source of serious injury. The search for a uniform smart airbag, which can perceive the size of the passenger or whether the seat is empty and react in that manner, is in progress. Such a ‘smart’ airbag will incorporate sensors to judge the weight, size and location of the car passengers and hence deploy more appropriately.In addition, incorporated safety devices associated with the seat belt along with other safety items, particularly for child passengers, are under development. The trend towards uncoated fabrics is anticipated to continue and so is the improved trend towards more airbags per car and fuII-size bags. There is also a technical challenge of producing the bag by using more rational techniques and related specifications made by the automotive industry.
Creating beautiful, functional architecture and installation art out of fabric is a phenomenon of the modern age. It is only in the past 100 years that fabric has been used for large structures such as bridges, domes, as well as canopies, shelters, and buildings. Unlike materials such as stone or wood, fabric is flexible and dynamic, adding an extra dimension to artistic works. Artists and architects all over the world have chosen to use fabric for its unique, expressive features.1. ColombiaAt a busy roundabout in Cucuta, Colombia, a pedestrian bridge constructed from bamboo and fabric was installed in 2009. Likely the largest bamboo and tensioned fabric structure ever built, the bridge has become well-known, even winning an Award for Excellence from the Industrial Fabrics Association International. A defining part of Cucuta’s urban landscape, the bridge is popular with the city’s residents.2. New ZealandArtist Anish Kapoor creates art for both permanent and temporary installation. One of his most stunning permanent pieces resides at ‘The Farm’, an outdoor art gallery near Auckland, New Zealand. The bright red fabric sculpture is 84 meters long, weighing in at over 90,000 kilograms. It consists of two 25 meter steel ellipses, one aligned horizontally and one vertically. These are connected and covered by PVC coated polyester fabric that weighs 7,200 kilograms on its own. A special cut was made in the hillside to hold the sculpture. When it is looked through, the sculpture gives the viewer a kaleidoscopic way to see the surrounding countryside.3. South AfricaThe Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in Port Elizabeth, South Africa was constructed for the 2010 football World Cup. Port Elizabeth is called the ‘Windy City’ because of its location on the coast, and the fabric stadium was built specifically to protect fans from the local elements. It is a handsome, open-air structure with translucent fabric sides, meant to allow natural light through to the inner space. The fabric is Teflon, because it is easy to maintain and lasts a long time. 22,000 square meters of Teflon were used.4. United StatesThe work ‘Surrounded Islands’ was created in 1983 by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, a married couple who design environmental works of art. The islands surrounded were in Biscayne Bay, near the coast of Florida. 603, 850 square meters of pink polypropylene fabric was used to cover the coastlines of 11 islands. The fabric was left in place for two weeks so the public could admire the artwork. Before the islands were surrounded, workers for the project spent about a year cleaning up rubbish from each land mass and its surrounding waters.
For years, the auto industry has touted the use of and need for steel in trucks, cars, and sport utility vehicles. Then, the public began asking for a more fuel efficient, less emissive, and cheaper vehicle. Newer, more environmentally sound cars are answering this call. Surprisingly, they have accomplished this without the use of the industry’s beloved steel. The kicker is that consumers didn’t notice the material switch.The Mysterious Steel SubstituteContrary to belief, magnesium alloys are much lighter than steel, cost less to fabricate, and make cars much more fuel efficient and “green”. The alloy is all of the following:A quarter of the weight of steel, but just as strong. In fact, magnesium is the lightest of all metals used to build cars, buildings, and other structures like bridges.
More impact resistant. Magnesium alloys absorb more of the impact’s energy. They are therefore more resistant to dents.
The dampening capacity or ability to reduce noise and vibration is also much higher than that of steel.
Magnesium is less rigid and bends easier than steel, making it easier to fabricate.The alloy isn’t actually new. It was discovered in 1755 by Joseph Black and isolated in 1808. The search for a more efficient and abundant material has led researchers to experiment with magnesium alloys in the place of the more traditional materials like steel that doesn’t perform as expected. The aforementioned factors have made the alloy a newfangled contraption in the auto industry.The Faces of Magnesium in AutomotivesSome of the first uses for magnesium in automotives were inside the car. Die cast steering columns, engine blocks, and chassis were just some of the uses for the alloy in cars. The vehicles were much lighter, used less gas, and had less emission as a result. Eventually, seat frames, dash panels, and the track that held the sunroof were also cast from magnesium. Naturally, the next step became taking the alloy to the outside of the car.Magnesium alloy sheeting made roof panels, hoods, oil pans and other outer elements of the common car lighter, stronger, and more resistant to impact. Expense was a concern for the die casting process, but the sheeting is less expensive because it requires less compression force to create, allows for parts consolidation and simpler designs. In addition, magnesium alloys have a shrinkage rate that is very predictable and less energy is required to make the sheets.The alloy is thus a step above steel, without a sacrifice in safety. One of the common misconceptions is that cars made from magnesium alloy as opposed to steel are less safe. You now know that the opposite is true. Magnesium alloys may just replace steel completely in the future.
India is full of diversity be it geography, culture, factors of urbanization or the range of fabrics. Most non-cotton fabrics used in India, which was a fashion rage in the 60’s and 70’s like polyester, voile and georgette are influence of western trends. The original Indian fabric is cotton and variations in cotton include cotton wool, cotton silk and all time soft muslin or mulmul.The high export variety in cotton is doing much to promote the Indian trade. Silks come in an endless range like pure silks, ghaltas, raw silk, brocade and tussar. The gulbadan, amru and peacock tinted silks are a prized possession. Other envious types of silks come in rich kanjivarams and chanderis. Patterned, chequered or plain it is a fabric of eternal formal grace.Blends in fabrics are getting popular. The cotton silk is an ultimate comfort for the skin. Wools with cotton in cardigans are good for mild winters. Detailing and mix-n-match styles attract such blending combinations.Primarily South of India is an booming industry for textiles. Weaves and textile works go a long way in paving fashion vistas. Jute is well experimented as cutting and styling is easy. Easily pliable to suit folds and pleats jute is a neat wear. Urban styles have western borrowings. Lyrca is the recent fashion fabric. Stretchable and suited for the now-woman look, the pliability of the fabric does wonders in fitting.Velvet though not the current trend is symbolic of feminity. Jacquard is a rich fabric and easy to be draped or cut into Indian wear. Georgette, chiffons, voile come in varieties. Chiffon is forever a fashion statement be it the saree or a simple kurta. Colours can be easily dyed on AcrylicPolynosic variety comes in Men’s shirts. Lycra-cottons are recent in trouser sets. Terry cot and Terry wool are easy maintenance. Dobby weaves and prints add more élan. Polyester is preferred for easy dry convenience and a monsoon wear.Pure crepes, silk crepes leave a lot to experiment with. Linen spell comfort be it lounge wear or formal apparels. Tafetta, Duiponi, Chinese silks, crepes and Charmeuse offer a lot in blending. Well tailored and adapted to Indian traditional needs the range and blends in satins and georgette is amazing. Fibers like rayon and nylon are useable. Colours can be easily dyed on Acrylic.The next time you need to buy georgette, ask for designs in animal prints, stretch or georgette-satin blends.
What is more comfortable than moisture absorbent fabric? Moisture Management is the newest concept in the textile industry. This is the latest concept of the fabric which gives comforts. The market of moisture management fabric is not the same as the apparel industry. The Moisture Management fabric is for the high-performance end of the market and it drew the attention of the high-end performance users.Now-a-days Moisture Management Fabric is the new and demanding concept in the Textile Industry. It is a kind of fabric which absorbs the moisture from the wearer and moves it away from the garment. This kind of action helps to make skin moisture free. The action of this fabric helps in preventing the moisture next to the skin. During hard physical activity body sweats and the moisture traps out in conventional clothing like cotton. The moisture locks out between clothing and body and then it increases body temperature and perspiration even more. Excessive perspiration can lead one to diminished performance and fatigue. In very hot conditions this is the usual condition which happens due to the trapped moisture. Hypothermia and chilling is the common condition happen in the cold temperature due to the trapped moisture. The moisture near to the skin makes skin cold when wind blows in the cold days. Excessive moisture can add weight to the garment and even it irritates the skin of the wearer and increases the chances of the skin diseases.This Moisture Management fabric is very useful if worn next to the skin at the time of the exercise. It keeps skin dry. This is the fabric of new age technology and its usage in new technology is expanding day by day. It proves its worth in the sportswear also.Moisture travels by the capillary action. The spaces between the fibres act as tubes and moisture travels through it. The fabric which has narrower spaces gives up moisture more quickly. So these fabrics are best for moisture transport.The moisture absorbent capacity of fabric also affects the moisture management. The higher absorbency leads to the more comfort levels. Little water absorbent capacity helps to maintain muscle performance and delay exhaustion.Moisture management fabrics are high tech synthetic fabrics. These fabrics are normally made of polyamide or polyester microfibres. These light weight fabrics are easy to handle and they dry quickly compared to the other fabrics. One can enhance the affectivity of this fabric by doing various processes on it. Blends are also possible in this fabric by using other fibre types.Copyright © 2007
Most buildings and infrastructures today are made of a combination of various supplies or materials. Steel, of course, is one of the core materials used in various building and construction projects.In the building and construction industry, fabricated steel is used for and in different applications. Fabricated steel refers to steel components that are manufactured, assembled, and joined to form a complete frame.The quality and appearance of fabricated steel that you will need for a particular project or application will depend greatly on the steel fabricating company you will choose. To make sure that you will get high-quality products or supplies, take note of the following tips when selecting a steel fabricating company:Choose a steel fabrication company that has the experience and capability to work with a broad array of metals. For instance, one component of the infrastructure may require stainless steel as parts while in some areas, copper or mild steel may be needed. It is important to make sure that the fabricating company you choose can handle mild and stainless steel, copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, and other types of metal.Select a fabricator that has various types of equipment capable of fabricating different materials. In steel fabrication, different techniques are used to form various kinds of metal. For instance, the techniques for forming and welding stainless steel are different from the ones used on aluminum. As such, the fabricating company should have all the necessary types of machinery capable of handling all possible needs. Generally, the company’s range of equipment should be able to cut, punch, drill, form, weld, and polish the materials you will need.Go with a company that has talented, skilled and qualified craftsmen who have experience in different types of steel fabricating techniques. To have high quality fabricated steel, in addition to the equipment, the company should boast of only the best craftsmen as well. The steel fabricating company should have or employ the best methods of training their personnel so that the “tricks of the trade” can be passed down from person to person.Lastly, choose a company that is capable of handling both high and low volume projects. Whether your demand for fabricated steel is large or small, the last thing you want is your order not being delivered to you on time or not delivered at all. Take the time to find out if the company always delivers what they promise by checking out customer feedback or reviews which you can read online.Read more about the services and products offered by steel fabricating companies here.
Rotary cutters for fabric have revolutionized the quilting industry by making it easy to cut layers of fabric into strips and shapes for quilting. Cutting fabric by hand with a pair of scissors was painful and slow causing pain in the fingers and hand, contributing to carpel tunnel syndrome.The fabric rotary cutters are a time saver and are used by most of the quilters who practice the art and enjoy creating quilts from fabric. The size ranges from small 18mm in diameter, to large at 60mm in diameter. The small ones are great to use when cutting fabric requiring curves but the large ones can cut through layers of fabric at a time. The rotary cutters consist of a few parts, the handle which consists of a molded handle and the head with a bolt for the blade to be attached and the nut that fits over the bolt, securing the blade in place. This should be tightened just so the blade can still turn freely, otherwise it will be difficult to use.The best fabric cutters are those which allow the blade to be retracted behind the head because this keeps the blade from accidentally cutting into something vital like a foot or hand if it is knocked from the cutting table. The blades are made of a very sharp steel and very thin at the edge. They should always be used with the cutting mat and a specialized ruler that helps guide the blade on a straight line instead of meandering across the fabric. The first blades manufactured for the fabric rotary cutters were straight edges, but now there are ones with a fluted, curved edge which gives a unique flare to the material used in the quilt.Quilt patterns often call for squares, triangles and strips of fabric that take time to cut when using the traditional method of scissors; however when using a cutting mat, rotary cutter and straight edge ruler, the cutting time will be about half of what it used to be when using scissors. It is a good idea to practice cutting on scrap fabric at first and visit a craft or quilt shop to ask the people for advice on buying the best fabric rotary cutter for your needs.The two most popular brands of fabric rotary cutters are manufactured by Ofla and Fisker; they have great features and last longer than some cheaper brands who do not have the experience these companies do. Take time choosing your fabric rotary cutter as it will be used for years to help you in completing the wonderful quilts to treasure for years to come and pass down as heirlooms to your children and grandchildren.
Industries in India have been expanding by leaps and bounds since independence. Despite the global economy experiencing downturns, the resilience of Indian entrepreneurs has driven the country from nothing to its zenith position. The fabrication industry is a crucial component to the country’s overall manufacturing statusThe future outlook of the industry is expected to grow even more, owing it to the development of infrastructure, favorable policies, new investments in the oil and gas, power projects, and petrochemical industries. Further growth in the manufacturing industries will also boost the growth of the fabrication industry. Since the export market is offering more opportunities for exploration, the contribution of India in global fabrication exports is anticipated to grow.The emerging trends such as outsourcing of fabrication services create opportunities for growth of the industry in India. Design services such as product improvement and maintenance, welding fabrication, structural fabrication, designing of manufacturing systems and product designing are increasingly being outsourced to Asian countries and India is among the top countries receiving the contracts. It is estimated that by the year 2020, India will be a $40 billion market for fabrication and engineering outsourcing services.Additionally, the Department of Commerce set a $125 billion target for engineering and fabrication exports for the 2013-2014 period. And so far, much has been achieved and many more opportunities are showing off in the Indian fabrication sector. The capital goods and turnover in India is expected to hit US$125.4 billion by the year 2017. The fabrication exports in India for the financial year 2014-2015 registered at US$70.7 billion, which was a 14.6% growth. This was greatly attributed to demand growth in the UAE and US. Apart from these typical markets, markets in Central and European nations such as Poland gives a huge promise.Most of the exports in India for its fabrication and engineering goods were directed to Europe and US, which accounts for more than 60% of all the exports. Recently, the exports from India to South Korea and Japan are also on the increase, rising to about 60%.Much of the growth experienced in the fabrication industry has also been attributed to the Indian government. The fabrication industry has a strategic importance to Indian economy owing it to the integration with other industrial segments. With the aim of improving the manufacturing sector, the Indian government has reduced excise duties on capital goods, factory gate tax, vehicles, and consumer durables. The government has also reduced basic custom duties from 10 to 5% on forged steel rings that are used in manufacturing bearings of electricity generators that are wind operated.Much of the developments experienced in the fabrication industry has been accounted by the government’s positive initiative. On its 2014-2015 Union Budget, the government offered an investment allowance at a rate of 15% to manufacturing companies that invest over $4.17 million within a year in machinery and new plants. Several steps have also been put in place to encourage companies to grow and perform even better.In general, the fabrication industry is a promising market. With the development in the associated industries such as infrastructure, the industry is expected to hit over $150 billion by 2017.